Farming in the Round – The Ewen Cattle Barn

The Ewen Cattle Barn, also known as the Keur Barn, was one of Richmond’s more unusual heritage structures, a type of barn that was unique in British Columbia and rare in Canada. Although it looked round, the barn was in fact polygonal, having 12 sides. It was representative of a time when agricultural practices in Europe and North America were undergoing reform through mechanization, the development of modern farming practices and the redesign of farm structures for increased efficiency.

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This aerial view shows the Ewen Barn’s location in relation to the Lafarge Cement plant at upper right and the Annacis Channel. Lion Island, the location of Alexander Ewen’s Ewen Cannery, is just visible at top right. No. 9 Road runs left to right in the photo. (City of Richmond Archives Accession 1990 13)

One of the aspects of this “High Farming”, as it was called in agricultural journals of the day, was the design of appropriate animal housing, with a focus on efficient use of space to allow animals to be kept warm and well fed over the winter. Round or polygonal barns fit this requirement well, although their more complex structure and higher construction costs compared to conventional barns made them less appealing to the average farmer. As a result, they tended to be built by farm owners who had an interest in the new farming practices and who had the capital to buy and outfit large farms.

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An upper level plan of the barn shows the granary and ramp leading to the second floor space. (City of Richmond Archives 1990 13 6)

This was the case with the Ewen Barn. It was built by pioneer salmon cannery owner Alexander Ewen, who had purchased 640 acres of land in east Richmond in the 1880s. The barn was erected around 1893. It was built of red cedar, logged and cut in the Lower Mainland and used a combination of traditional heavy timber framing and light timber framing systems.

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A drawing showing a cross section view of the barn with its cattle stalls below and second floor space. A cow and a man are added for scale.(City of Richmond Archives 1990 13 5)

Unusually large for a barn of this type, it was 100 feet in diameter and 50 feet high with two floors, the lower floor being the stable floor with the capacity to house and feed 100 cattle and the upper floor used for hay and equipment storage. The stable floor took only one quarter of the building’s height, leaving three quarters of the interior volume available for storage. Cattle stalls were arranged in a circle around the outside of the lower floor and openings in the upper floor allowed feed to be dropped down to the hungry mouths below.

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A team of horses haul a wagon of hay with the Ewen Barn in the background in this image, ca. 1900. The barn’s roof is still fitted with the rooftop ventilator which was removed in the 1940s. (City of Richmond Archives photo 2009 2 19)

A rectangular granary was added to the outside  of the barn shortly after it was built, and a ramp was provided from the ground to the barn’s second floor so that wagons could be driven up to unload hay and feed, circling around the circumference of the structure and down the ramp again. Built before electrical power was available, daylight was the only illumination available. Fitted with few windows, open doors admitted most of the light. An eight foot wide roof ventilator mounted atop the barn’s huge conical roof admitted light to the upper floor, although this was removed during reroofing in the 1940s.

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The Ewen Barn in 1979. The rectangular granary and ramp to the second floor are clearly visible. (City of Richmond Archives photo 1984 4 58)

The farm served by the Ewen Barn became one of the largest beef producers in Richmond, with as many as 4500 cattle a year being fattened and sent to slaughter at its peak. It also grew to be the largest Jersey cow breeding  establishment on Lulu Island. The barn continued to house cattle until the mid 1970s when it fell into disuse and began to deteriorate.

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A view of the deteriorating barn, ca. 1996. (City of Richmond Archives photo 2003 17 1)

In an attempt to preserve the barn, work was started by the Richmond Heritage Advisory Committee, spearheaded by Committee member Graham Turnbull, which included detailed reports on the barn’s historical context, architectural details and history. In 1995, at the request of the Committee, the barn was designated a National Historic Site by the Canadian Historic Sites and Monuments Board. In 1998 the Committee contracted Architect and Heritage Advocate Robert Lemon to prepare a report and facilitate a Conservation Workshop aimed at exploring options for the barn’s preservation. It was determined that the building could be stabilized at a cost of $112,000. A non-profit Society, The Friends of the Ewen Barn Society, was formed in order to begin the process of raising the money for the stabilization work and to negotiate with the property’s owner.

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In February 1999 the old barn collapsed in a windstorm. (City of Richmond Archives photo 2006 24 57)

Unfortunately, nature cares nothing for the preservation of old barns and in February 1999 a windstorm caused the collapse of the barn, at the time believed to be the oldest structure in Richmond. The barn was a total loss, although some of it remains as part of another heritage structure in Richmond. Salvaged lumber from the barn was used to repair the wharves at Britannia Heritage Shipyards.

 

Wells Air Harbour

Lulu Island was the location of many of BC’s pioneering aviation milestones but since the opening of the Vancouver Airport and Seaplane base on Sea Island on July 22, 1931 the majority of Richmond’s aviation activity has taken place there.

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A float plane taxis on the Middle Arm of the Fraser River in this photo, ca. 1930. (City of Richmond Archives photo 1989 19 11)

One exception to this was Wells Air Harbour, a seaplane base and repair facility on the Lulu Island side of the middle arm. The facility was built by Air Land Manufacturing and started operations in 1929, becoming an important base for seaplane operations. It became generally known by the name of its operator, Hunter Wells, during the early 1930s.

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This waterworks map from the late 1930s shows the Wells Air Harbour building, labelled “Aeroplane Plant”, on the upper left, just south of the end of Bridgeport Road. (City of Richmond Archives map – Sea Island and No.3 Road Water Linens)

The business was located on River Road near the present end of Bridgeport Road, easily accessible from Vancouver via the Marpole Bridge. Aircraft that landed on the Middle Arm could moor at the terminal’s floats or, if in need of repairs, could be hauled up the ramp into the hangar.

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Bush pilot Ginger Coote operated his airline out of Wells Air Harbour. Shown here is his Waco YKS-6 in a hangar. (City of Richmond Archives photo 1985 1 21)

The Harbour was the base of operations for many aviation companies. Wells Air Transport, Alaska-Washington Airways of BC, Commercial Airways and Canadian Airways all used the facility. Ginger Coote Airways, run by legendary bush pilot Russell L. “Ginger” Coote also used the base. Coote was a WWI fighter pilot and after the war personified the image of the daring bush pilot.

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Russel L. “Ginger” Coote, in the pilot’s uniform, stands on the float at Wells Air Harbour, ca. 1935. In the right foreground is the ramp to the hangar where Tommy Jones repaired and rebuilt aircraft. (City of Richmond Archives photo 2012 12 1)

Tommy Jones ran a profitable aircraft overhaul and repair business at the Air Harbour as well. Many of the classic seaplanes were serviced there, with work from regular maintenance to complete overhauls taking place. It was not unusual to see groups of women at the repair shop stitching and fitting fabric to the wings and fuselages of various aircraft.

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This aerial view shows the former Wells Air Harbour hangar building at the end of Bridgeport Road in 1953 with the ramp used to haul aircraft into the hangar removed. The building has seen many uses over the years, from an aluminum factory to a restaurant, and survives to this day. (City of Richmond Archives photo 1977 1 99)

Wells Air Harbour and Jones’ repair business closed as better facilities became available around the Lower Mainland with the onset of WWII. The hangar building is still standing, tucked between the two bridges to YVR, and for many years has been home to the Richmond Boathouse Restaurant.

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A Google Street View capture shows the Boathouse – West Marine location on River Road. The large hangar door openings can still be seen, a leftover from the days when this building was one of the busiest seaplane bases in the Lower Mainland. Infill has separated the building from the Middle Arm and provided a parking lot.

 

Sir Edward Walter’s Haunted House

House drawing by Greg Jones, City of Richmond Archives 7431

House drawing by Greg Jones, City of Richmond Archives accession 1987 107.

On Halloween,as our thoughts stray to witches and ghosts and things that go bump in the night, would you believe that in today’s bustling city centre on the property now bounded by Westminster Hwy, No 3.and Saba Roads and Buswell Street, stood one of Richmond’s oldest and most haunted houses?

The house was built in the 1860s as a hunting lodge by wealthy Englishman Sir Edward Walter (1823-1904), founder and first commandant of the Corps of Commissionaires and whose family founded the Times of London newspaper.

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Sir Edward Walter, 1823 – 1904. Photo from the website http://corpsthinking.com/2014/03/24/same-as-it-ever-was/.

Walter was fond of duck hunting and spared no expense in building his retreat. Bevelled mirrors, stained glass, marble and cast iron fireplaces, carved woodwork,elaborate hardware and even a grand piano were imported and apparently floated to the property, probably along the Pearson Slough which penetrated into the area from the middle arm. Why he chose to build his house in the middle of a sodden mudflat quite a distance from boat access to the river is unknown.

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Lot plan drawn by Arnold Jones, City of Richmond Archives accession 1987 107.

The lodge was patterned after the connected farm, a design common in New England, England and Wales. In this design the main house, dairy, kitchen (with servant’s quarters upstairs), toilet and carriage houses are connected along a long north facing wall, allowing access to all areas without the need to be exposed to the weather. Apparently Mrs. Walter did not enjoy life on Lulu Island very much and went back to England after about three months, never to return. Sir Edward stayed on for a while, but eventually returned to civilization himself, abandoning the house.

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House plan showing “connected farm” style of construction, drawn by Arnold Jones, City of Richmond Archives accession 1987 107.

In 1916 Mr. Charles Jones, Waterworks Manager for the Township of Richmond, managed to track down the executors of Walter’s estate and purchased the property.

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This image shows the Jones family in front of house,ca. 1918, City of Richmond Archives photo 1987 108 1

Mr. Jones’ son Arnold described the feelings of unease and apprehension that he and others in his family felt while living in the house, and later in the kitchen/servant’s quarters which his father moved to a different part of the property and enlarged for use as the family home. Footsteps on the stairs and landings when no-one was there were so common that they were generally ignored. Visitations by a man wearing a formal jacket, bowler hat and carrying a cane occurred every spring in the house. A woman was occasionally seen peering out the window. These sightings always seemed to occur as the person was waking up and the apparitions would fade away as full wakefulness came. On one occasion, when Mr. Jones was away there was so much banging and clashing in the walls that no one slept for two days.

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This image shows a Birthday party Tug-of-War in front of house, June 1919, L to R, Alex Horne, Ben Jones (Insurance man), Henry Anderson (Richmond Reeve/Mayor), Stanley Ackroyd, Arnold Jones, Gordon and Cecil Morris. City of Richmond Archives photo 1987 108 2

Mr. Jones sold the house to the Berry family in 1921. The Berrys put a large addition on the back of the building. When questioned by Arnold Jones about any strange things they noticed in the house, members of that family described strange noises and seeing a man in a bowler hat while living there. The Berrys sold the house to Mr. Mudry who in turn sold to Mr Thompson and Mr Silverton of Vancouver who renovated the building into suites and opened it as the Lulu Island Tourist Hotel.

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This photo shows the house with addition on back, ca. 1925, City of Richmond Archives photo 1993 11 1

Gradually buildings appeared around the house as Richmond grew. In this image from 1948, commercial development is in the early stages at the intersection of No.3 Road and Westminster Highway. To the left of Sir Edward Walter’s house is the Rooster Cafe. To the right are the Lulu Theatre and Lang’s Nursery. The building was demolished in January 1962.

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Photo showing the intersection of No.3 Road and Westminster Highway in 1948, Walters house in centre of photo. City of Richmond Archives photo 1997 1 98

Today, everything has changed. I wonder if any of the people living in these modern highrises know this area’s haunted past or have woken to the fading image of a formally dressed man wearing a bowler hat?

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Google satellite view showing the intersection of No.3 Road and Westminster Highway.